(1.) Cardinal Mindszenty fiercely opposed communism and the communist persecution in his country of Hungary. As a result, he was arrested, *tortured behind the scenes, and given a life sentence in a 1949 show trial that generated worldwide condemnation. (2.)
*St. Thomas Aquinas teaches in order to constitute a genuine [true] act of the will: the act must be performed spontaneously [freely] -without constraint or force- (and that) man can be coerced or forced to do something against his will in two ways: by violence and by fear (VI. 4, 5,6). THAT WHICH IS DONE UNDER EXTERIOR VIOLENCE IS WHOLLY INVOLUNTARY (VI. 5).
(3.) On 3 February 1949, his trial began. On 8 February Cardinal Mindszenty was sentenced to life imprisonment for treason against the Communist government. Mindszenty walked into court and openly confessed to the crimes he was accused of. On February 12, 1949, Pope Pius XII announced the excommunication of all persons involved in the trial and conviction of Mindszenty. In his apostolic letter, Acerrimo Moerore, he publicly condemned the jailing of Cardinal Mindszenty and stated he was being mistreated.